HOME http://www.diabetescasestudy.com -- Diabetes Research This page was first posted in November 2004. Compiled, edited, and copyright by Paul J. Tubiana. “Researchers can find the cures that are there…if only they are allowed to look.” -- U.S. Senator John F. Kerry
Links and References
Links The following web links are provided as a courtesy and they are expressly not endorsed. This website’s owner is not responsible for content of these external links. Clicking on these links will not return you to this website, please use your browser’s back button. Dr. Johann GeorgSchnitzer-- One of the world’s leading experts on diabetes, health, and nutrition. Zeppelinstr. 88 D-88045 Friedrichshafen Germany Email: Dr.Schnitzer@t-online.de Fax: 011 + 49 7541 398 561 http://www.doc-schnitzer.com or http://www.dr-schnitzer.de Misfiring proteins tied to inflammation and sick feeling of type 2 diabetics http://www.news.uiuc.edu/news/04/0727diabetes.html They told me I had Type 1 Diabetes but I really had Type 2 http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/medicalnews.php?newsid=11158 Dr. Jay Gordon “The medical evidence strongly points to early exposure to cow's milk leading to an increase in Type 1 diabetes.”But in the absence of C-Peptide testing in children, could this have been evidence of a correlation between cow’s milk and type 2 diabetes in children? http://www.drjaygordon.com/development/pediatricks/dairy.asp American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 83, No. 2, 275-283, February 2006 Whole grains, bran, and germ in relation to homocysteine and markers of glycemic control, lipids, and inflammation. http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/content/abstract/83/2/275 New York Times - January 11, 2006 - By Ian Urbina In the Treatment of Diabetes, Success Often Does Not Pay (http://www.nytimes.com – registration required/or try your public library) New York Times - January 12, 2006 - By Marc Santora East Meets West, Adding Pounds and Peril (http://www.nytimes.com – registration required/or try your public library) http://journal.diabetes.org/clinicaldiabetes/V17N41999/pg146.htm Dr. Ira B. Hirsh "In 1979, the National Diabetes Data Group and in 1980 the World Health Organization recognized two major forms of diabetes.1,2 One type was termed insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM, or type 1 diabetes) and the other non-insulin-dependent diabetes (NIDDM, or type 2 diabetes). Unfortunately, the terms IDDM and NIDDM are confusing and resulted in classifying individuals based on treatment rather than on their etiology.Furthermore, the pathogenesis of both major forms of diabetes has become more clear."But even though new terms were adopted based on etiology, doctors simply ignored root cause and labeled diabetic patients based on treatment using the new terms.The etiology of diabetes was based on theories and treatment rather than objective scientific (C-Peptide) testing.The pathogenesis of diabetes has become more clear since doctors began to C-Peptide test their patients. Definition of Type 1 Diabetes: "It is now appreciated that type 1 diabetes is usually due to an autoimmune process resulting in complete Beta-cell destruction. "
Definition of Type 2 Diabetes: "On the other hand, those with type 2 diabetes are resistant to the effects of insulin. Although a Beta-cell defect is required for the development of hyperglycemia in those with type 2 diabetes, complete insulin deficiency does not occur, and there is no evidence for an autoimmune process." References The C-Peptide test 2002 -- Mosby's Manual of Diagnostic and Laboratory Tests - Second Edition by Kathleen DeskaPagana, Ph.D., RN & Timothy J. Pagana, MD,FACS - Pages 186-188 Mosby’s Inc. – St. Louis, MO USA ISBN 0-323-01609-X A.“The exogenously administered insulin suppresses endogenous insulin production.” B.“Fasting range is: 0.78 - 1.89 ng/ml (0.26 - 0.62 nmol/L SI unit) Range one hour after a glucose load is: 5.00 - 12.00 ng/ml” According to my C-Peptide Test lab report, the normal reference range is:“0.6 - 3.2 ng/ml.” Insulin Resistance March 30, 1979 – JAMA Vol. 241, No. 13 Pages 1324, 1335 – Jesse Roth: redefining diabetes by receptors by W. Check Sinus infection, Staphylococcus aureus, and diabetes 1. October 8, 1966 -- The Lancet, Pages 776-777 -- Nasal Carriage of Staphylococcus Aureus in Diabetes Mellitus by Smith & O'Conner A.”It is a well-known clinical observation that lesions caused by Staphyloccusaureus are commoner in patients with diabetes mellitus than in non-diabetics (Greenwood 1927, Gilchrist and Alexander,1933). According to Lister about 20% of cases of diabetes are discovered as the result of a septic skin lesion, and it is for this reason that examination of the urine for glucose is regarded as mandatory in anyone with staphylococcal infection of the skin.” B.“…it seemed worth while to determine the staphylococcal nasal carriage rate among groups of diabetic and non-diabetic subjects…” C.“In view of the relatively high carriage-rate of Staph. Aureus among the subjects receiving insulin, all of the isolates were examined in order to determine whether any particular groups of organisms were present more commonly in the anterior nares of insulin-requiring diabetics than in those of other subjects.” D.“The results of this investigation are in keeping with the clinical observation that Staph. Aureus infection is commoner in diabetics than in non-diabetics.Although we can only speculate as to the mechanisms underlying this association, it seems reasonable to suppose that it is due primarily to metabolic disturbances in diabetes mellitus.” 2. March 24, 1975 -- JAMA Vol. 231, No. 12 Page 1272 -- Staphylococcus aureus Among Insulin-Injecting Diabetic Patients - An Increased Carrier Rate by Tuazon A. “Similarly, the insulin–using group probably had more severe diabetes than the patients taking oral hypoglycemic agents.” 3. May-June 1977 -- The American Journal of the Medical Sciences, Pages 259-265 -- Pathogenic carrier rate in diabetes mellitus by Paul T. Chandler & S.D. Chandler A.“In their study insulin-requiring diabetics carried Staphylococcus aureus in the anterior nares more frequently than nondiabetics.” B.“Patients with poor control had a greater incidence of pathogens.This may be due to poor control itself or a parallel factor.” C.“…but when present organisms act with greater virulence.” D.“The epidemiologic significance of this finding could be profound if it is projected onto the total outpatient diabetic population.” 4.1974 -- Bergey’s manual of determinative bacteriology, Pages 484-487 The Williams & Wilkins Company – ISBN 0-683-01117-0 A.”Facultative anaerobes:growing best under aerobic conditions.Most strains grow between 6.5 and 46 C; optimum 30-37 C; pH values between 4.2 and 9.3 (optimum pH 7.0-7.5) and in 15% sodium chloride or 40% bile.Minimum water activity permitting growth of aerobically grown cells is .86 (Scott, 1953). Originally isolated from pus in wounds; found in nasal membranes, hair follicles, skin and perineum of warm blooded animals.Potential pathogens causing a wide range of infections and intoxications; boils, abscesses, meningitis, furunculosis, pyemia, osteomyelitis, suppuration of wounds and food poisoning; see Further Comments at end of species description.” B.“In the presence of air, mainly acetate and small amounts of carbon dioxide are produced (Gardner and Lascelles, 1962).” C.“Acid produced aerobically and anerobically from glucose, lactose, maltose and mannitol. In air a wider range of carbohydrates are used as carbon and energy sources…” D.“Acetoin is produced as an end-product of glucose metabolism;…” E.“Coagulases are produced by virtually all strains; several antigenically distinct and substrate specific coagulases are produced.” F.“All strains are potential pathogens.Under suitable conditions strains produce a variety of enzymes believed by some to play a role in initiating infection;…” 5.2001 – Fundamentals of microbiology – 6th Edition by Edward Alcamo, Pages 235-236 Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Inc. -- Sunbury, MA USA ISBN 0-7637-1067-9 STAPHYLOCOCCAL FOOD POISONING A.“Modern microbiologists, however, have exonerated the ptomaines and placed the blame for most food poisonings on the Gram-positve bacterium Staphylococcus aureus.Today, staphylococcal food poisioning ranks as the second most reported of all types of foodborne disease (Salmonella-related illnesses are first).Because most staphylococcal outbreaks probably go unreported, staphylococcal food poisoning could be the most common type.” B.“The incubation period for staphylococcal food poisioning is a brief 1 to 6 hours.Often the individual can think back and pinpoint the source.Examples are spoiled meats and fish, as well as contaminated dairy products, cream-filled pastries, and salads such as potato salad and coleslaw.Foods containing S. aureus lack an unusual taste, odor, or appearance, and the only clues to possible contamination are factors such as moisture content, low acidity, and improper heating previous to arrival on the table.” C.“A key reservoir of S. aureus in humans is the nose.Thus, an errant sneeze may be the source of staphylococci in foods.Studies indicate, however, that the most common mode of transmission is from boils or abscesses on the skin that shed staphylococci.” D.“Staphylococcus aureus normally does not grow in human intestines because of competition by other organisms.Therefore, public health investigators are usually unable to locate the organisms in stool samples.Moreover, the contaminated food has often been consumed completely.Thus, case reports are often based on symptoms, pattern of outbreak, and type of food eaten.” Nutrition 1.Explanations received from Dr. Johann GeorgSchnitzer by e-mail. For information see his website:http://www.doc-schnitzer.comor http://www.dr-schnitzer.de “Diabetes Type II is caused by widespread wrong feeding habits, which were and are introduced, trained and maintained by groups which either live upon the wrong foodstuff side, or upon the resulting diseases side. In the table of Homotoxicology according to Dr. Hans Heinrich Reckeweg, which you find in my book about diabetes, you could localize it as a "deposition phase" (it's mainly a deposition of mucopolysaccharides in the basal membrane of the cardiovascular system, in the interstitium and in the membranes of all cells -provided by an oversupply with animal protein and refined carbohydrates from wrong feeding habits).” “Milk causes mucus production. Mucus is an ideal soil for growth of bacteria. Glucose: E.g. Poliomyelitis only can infect a body after a sugar spike, which is followed by high insulin production and therefore a hypoglycemia (which opens the door widely for the virus). But milk also increases the oversupply with protein, which causes cardiovascular and other diseases.” “The effect of protein oversupply isn't a direct one like eating sugar; it's an indirect one. By a partial storage of protein in the cellular membranes, in the interstitium, and in the basal membrane of the capillaries, the transport way for insulin is increased up to 15 times longer, what makes the transport time for insulin from the B-cells to the insulin receptors on the surface of the cells 15 x 15 = 225 times longer. In addition, the ability of the insulin receptors becomes considerably impaired.” 2.January-February 1987 – Diabetes Care, Vol. 10 No. 1, Page 126, Item 3 “Protein intake.Americans in general consume too much protein.” Health conditions that may have a common cause by different names Note:The C-Peptide test would be useful in evaluating these conditions. Insulin Resistance Syndrome Syndrome X Metabolic Syndrome Pre-Diabetes Type 2 Diabetes (Also known as Insulin Resistance) Type 1 Diabetes (But really Type 2 Diabetes)* Juvenile Diabetes (But really Type 2 Diabetes)* Insulin Dependent Diabetes (But really Type 2 Diabetes)* Insulinoma Pancreatic Cancer (When diagnosed by high C-Peptide levels) Obesity Heart Disease (Protein-plaque?) Alzheimer’s (Protein-plaque?) Hypoglycemia Hyperglycemia Hypothyroidism Sinusitis Infections Chronic Fatigue Other conditions not listed. *A stimulated (by blood glucose) C-Peptide test is necessary to determine this. Diabetes Timeline In examining many medical textbooks from the 1970’s to the present, I discovered that the information yielded no new discoveries or innovations in the knowledge of what diabetes is from the late 1970’s on.They all neglect to mention the C-Peptide test.The only significant difference in information between the 1970’s and now is the insulin pump.In the same amount of time every other branch of science has discovered and innovated at an unprecedented pace on the nano-scale, so why hasn’t medicine done the same on a few basics in the same span of time? 1889German physicians Joseph von Mering and OskarMinkowski demonstrate that removal of the pancreas in dogs produces diabetes.This was a great discovery at the time, but also the beginning of a huge misconception about what actually causes diabetes. 1921Canadians Sir Frederick Banting, a young orthopedic surgeon interested in physiology and Charles H. Best, a medical student discovered insulin in John James Rickard MacLeod’s laboratory at the University of Toronto by experimenting with extractions from the pancreas of dogs.The discovery saved lives and transformed some diabetes cases from a fatal condition to one of leading a seemingly normal live. After 50 year of notoriety of this event and the well ingrained notion of insulin as “life giving.” It would make it difficult for many to be open to accept any new concepts or discoveries about diabetes, such as a diabetic’s pancreas producing enough insulin while still requiring insulin (insulin resistance.) Clearly, this would play well to the advantage of Eli Lilly and to the detriment of diabetics and the general health of people because nutritional discoveries about diabetes could have prevented many new cases of diabetes and many other health conditions. 1923Banting and Best received the Nobel Prize. Eli Lilly began commercial development of insulin extracted from cows and pigs
1933- 1945“Deadly Medicine: Creating the Master Race:From 1933 to 1945, Nazi Germany carried out a campaign to "cleanse" German society of individuals viewed as biological threats to the nation's "health." Enlisting the help of medically trained professionals, the Nazis developed racial health policies that began with the sterilization of "genetically diseased" persons and ended with the near annihilation of European Jewry.” Source: www.ushmm.org
I insert this here for the purpose of reminding the reader of what “Medicine” is capable of doing,
under the auspice of a misguided health policy or healthcare system, least we forget. Who are “medically trained professionals” really helping out today (knowingly or unknowingly), the patient or the drug company? 1967C-Peptide is discovered. 1972The earliest article I could find on the subject of the C-Peptide test. 1977Pathogenic Carrier rate in diabetes mellitus by Chandler and Chandler Note: Staphylococcus aureus causes inflammation. This is the last credible study linking diabetes to nasal Staphylococcus aureus infection. 1970’sEli Lilly & Company fears an insulin shortage caused by a combination of decreased red meat consumption and increased insulin usage.In response to these concerns, Eli Lilly teams up with the biotechnology company Genentechto genetically engineer bacteria that could synthesize and secrete a potentially limitless supply of human insulin at low cost. 1978Dr. Johann GeorgSchnitzer discovers a natural curing therapy for diabetes. 1979Dr. Ira B. Hirsh writes in 1999 on http://journal.diabetes.org/clinicaldiabetes/V17N41999/pg146.htm: "In 1979, the National Diabetes Data Group and in 1980 the World Health Organization recognized two major forms of diabetes.1,2 One type was termed insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM, or type 1 diabetes) and the other non-insulin-dependent diabetes (NIDDM, or type 2 diabetes). Unfortunately, the terms IDDM and NIDDM are confusing and resulted in classifying individuals based on treatment rather than on their etiology.Furthermore, the pathogenesis of both major forms of diabetes has become more clear."But even though new terms were adopted based on etiology, doctors simply ignored root cause and labeled diabetic patients based on treatment using the new terms.The etiology of diabetes was based on theories and treatment rather than objective scientific (C-Peptide) testing.
1980Eli Lilly & Company completes development of Humulin® the first synthetic insulin.It is produced as a byproduct of genetically altered Escherichia coli bacteria.Humulin® insulin contains only 10 parts per million (ppm) of the so called “impurity” proinsulin, as compared to 10,000 ppm in animal source insulin.Proinsulin is also known as C-Peptide.With Humulin® insulin it is now possible to use the C-Peptide test with clear results. Synthetic insulins are considered to contain no C-Peptide. 1980Dr. Jesse Roth reported about his research on the insulin receptors in the membrane of the cells, during the 1stInternational Symposium about Insulin Receptors which took place in Rome, Italy at the end of September, 1980. (reported in German in the medical journal SELECTA No. 52, page 4448, 1980). Dr. Jesse Roth is known as the "father of the cell receptors", working at that time at the NIH (National Institute of Health), Bethesda, Maryland. He said in his lecture there (translation from the original German text): "Most doctors are treating diabetes inappropriately. For the mass of diabetics, a diet low in calories, high in fibre, together with exercise, is the therapy of the first line; Insulin comes in the second place, and blood sugar lowering tablets, as sulphonyl urea, are standing only in the third line. But to the doctors, usually the opposite list of priorities is recommended ... We observed: As soon as diabetics with overweight can be persuaded to use diet, quickly the number of receptors normalizes, and with it their responsiveness to insulin ... In eight of 10 patients, it's worth the trial with diet, before prescribing any medication at all." This paragraph contributed by Dr. Schnitzer. 1980Diabetes was well diagnosed in Europe but under diagnosed in the United States until 1990. Knowledge in the medical field and public awareness in the United States about diabetes was lagging while in Europe the “Diabetology” specialty was developing.Under diagnosis of diabetes in the U.S. was in part due to public stigma about “Staph” infection at the time as well as unfamiliarity with the disease in the medical profession. 1984Novo Nordisk (Denmark) introduces its version of bioengineered insulin. 1985Humulin® insulin is introduced on the U.S. market. During the five years that Humulin® insulin was in existence while not on the market, many internal and unpublished studies could have been performed using the C-Peptide test.Usually drug companies are the first to discover things about their products and often keep them secret.The market was very resistant to this new product because of fear about its bio-engineered source.One of the marketing points of Humulin® insulin unlike animal source insulin was better because it was molecularly identical to natural human insulin. Note:Today the opposite is true because new insulins like Humalog®(1996)and Lantus®(2001) were developed by tweaking the amino-acids on the insulin molecule.Therefore the new insulins are just as molecularly different as animal source insulin when compared to the molecule of natural human insulin. A detailed explanation of these molecular differences can be found on an accompanying vial pamphlets or a drug prescribing information book (PDR). 1987The American Diabetes Association begins to cave in to industry and medical pressures – Betraying diabetics. 1987January-February 1987 – Diabetes Care, Vol. 10 No. 1, Page 126 Myths: A.“1.The amount of carbohydrates should be liberalized…” B.“3.…modest amounts of sucrose and other refined sugars may be acceptable…” Truth: “3. …Protein intake.Americans in general consume too much protein.” 1987January-February 1987 – Diabetes Care, Vol. 10 No. 1 --Two articles (Pages 26-32 and pages 33-38) about some of the rare studies performed about C-peptide testing create confusion in the medical field and do not lead to clear guidelines for doctors performing the C-Peptide test.Since at that time Humulin® insulin is not yet widely used doctors these studies can only confuse.Old theories about an “autoimmune disease” that destroy Beta islet cells prevail.These false theories will be played up in the future to conceal the truth about juvenile diabetes. 1.Prevalence of Fasting Hyperglycemia and Known Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus Classified by Plasma C-Peptide:FREDERICA Survey of Subjects 60-74 Yr Old. By Else M. Damsgaard, MD January-February 1987 – Diabetes Care, Vol. 10 No. 1, Pages 26-32 A.“During the study period (February 1, 1981 to October 31,1982)…” This study was not published in the ADA’s journal for 4 years. Why? With synthetic insulin now entering the market this study is already obsolete, unless it is used to mark some historical note. B.“Evaluation of B-cell function…Glucagon (1mg i.v.) was administered for 3 s.Just before and 6 min after glucagon was injected, venous blood was drawn and analyzed for blood glucose and C-peptide (16-18).” The time of 6 minutes between administration of Glucagon and withdrawing blood for the C-Peptide test is inadequate.The time should have been one hour after stimulation. C.“…we propose to use fasting C-Peptide for classification of patients with insulin treated diabetes.” This is false. They should have recommended to use a stimulated C-Peptide for classification of patients with insulin treated diabetes.This study deals mainly with Non-insulin dependent diabetes.So why do they make this proposal? This proposal makes the “fasting C-Peptide test” inadvertently become the standard for all diabetics insulin and non-insulin dependent diabetics without any regard about exogenous insulin suppression resulting in C-Peptide suppression.Insulin Dependent Diabetics that are fortunate enough to be tested are falsely classified as “C-Peptide negative.” Furthermore the medical profession is unaware of the benefits of Humulin® insulin (which contains no C-Peptide) regardingthe C-Peptide test and proper use of a stimulated (by blood glucose) C-Peptide test. 2.Residual B-Cell Function in Children With IDDM:Reproducibility of Testing and Factors Influencing Insulin Secretory Reserve. -- January-February 1987 – Diabetes Care, Vol. 10 No. 1, Pages 33-38 More confusion: The first word of the title “Residual” already hammers into the mind the older false theoryof an “auto-immune-disease” that somehow destroys Beta cells. Insulin Dependent Diabetics that are fortunate enough to be tested are falsely classified as “C-Peptide negative.”The medical profession is unaware of the benefits of Humulin® insulin regarding the C-Peptide test and proper use of a stimulated (by blood glucose) C-Peptide test. The Sustacal tests used in this studywould be of little use on an insulin dependent diabetic if this “mixed liquid meal” does not increase blood glucose to overcome the insulin (and C-Peptide) suppression. 1987Remission of Diabetes After Irradiation of Head and Neck – January-February 1987 – Diabetes Care, Vol. 10 No. 1, Page 137 This article describes three cases (the first was in 1978) of diabetes remission after head and neck irradiation for tumors. This article should have signaled a clear link between diabetes and Staphylococcus aureus colonization in the sinus or inflammation in the sinus but it did not.It should have also raised questions as to what dietary factors cause inflammation. 1989Eli Lilly (U.S.) merges with Novo Nordisk (Denmark) resulting in a monopoly of the global insulin supply. The only remaining large scale insulin producer is chemical giant Hoechst AG (Germany). Monopolies occur by squeezing out competition and controlling prices. When competition is squeezed out of the market, the next step is to squeeze customers – either by pricing practices or drawing new customers by more subtle means. 1989March 1989 – Diabetes Care, Vol. 12 No. 3 NIDDM and Prevalence of Nasal Staphylococcus aureus Colonization This study serves only to discredit any connection between diabetes and Staphylococcus aureus by comparing Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes to a control group. Note: The existence of insulin dependent type 2 diabetes in children is known to only an elite few.And that insulin dependent diabetics have a larger staphylococcus aureus infection in the sinus than non-insulin dependent diabetics. Result:Public stigma about “Staph” infection is neutralized. 1990’sC-Peptide testing reveals type 2 diabetes in children at younger and younger ages. Humulin® insulin overcomes market resistance. Diabetes becomes well diagnosed in the U.S. Insulin Pump sales increase, also increasing insulin sales. Many insurance companies require a C-Peptide test in order to demonstrate that the need for an expensive insulin pump costing up to $5,000. is based on the fact that an insulin dependent diabetic is in fact a true “type 1.” Given the history of doctors knowing how to play the insurance system for financing: Which of the following two choices would be more advantageous to an Endocrinologist seeking insurance approval for an insulin pump? 1.To use a fasting C-Peptide test, in order to demonstrate a C-Peptide “negative” or of low value result. 2.To use a Stimulated C-Peptide test (by blood glucose), and risk that a C-Peptide positive result would disqualify approval for an insulin pump. 1996Humalog® and Novalog® are introduced on the market. On one particular vial of Humalog® I noted that it was produced in France. 1999Dr. Ira B. Hirsh writes for the American Diabetes Association on http://journal.diabetes.org/clinicaldiabetes/V17N41999/pg146.htm: "In 1979, the National Diabetes Data Group and in 1980 the World Health Organization recognized two major forms of diabetes.1,2 One type was termed insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM, or type 1 diabetes) and the other non-insulin-dependent diabetes (NIDDM, or type 2 diabetes). Unfortunately, the terms IDDM and NIDDM are confusing and resulted in classifying individuals based on treatment rather than on their etiology.Furthermore, the pathogenesis of both major forms of diabetes has become more clear."But even though new terms were adopted based on etiology, doctors simply ignored root cause and labeled diabetic patients based on treatment using the new terms.The etiology of diabetes was based on theories and treatment rather than objective scientific (C-Peptide) testing. The pathogenesis of diabetes has become more clear since doctors began to C-Peptide test their patients. Definition of Type 1 Diabetes: "It is now appreciated that type 1 diabetes is usually due to an autoimmune process resulting in complete Beta-cell destruction. "
Definition of Type 2 Diabetes: "On the other hand, those with type 2 diabetes are resistant to the effects of insulin. Although a Beta-cell defect is required for the development of hyperglycemia in those with type 2 diabetes, complete insulin deficiency does not occur, and there is no evidence for an autoimmune process."
1999Eli Lilly discontinues Beef-Pork insulin. How much insulin is still now being produced in the United States by Eli Lilly remains a mystery. Hoechst AG of Germany merges with Rhone-Poulenc SA of France to form Aventis Pharmaceuticals. 2001Lantus® 24 hour basal insulin produced by AventisPharma Deutschland (Germany) is introduced in the United States. Note:It has been brought to my attention that the arrival of this product on the market was delayed for a period of approximately 7-10 years due to some heavy-handed tactics. I speculate that the patent to the technology or process to produce synthetic rDNA insulin by Eli Lilly played a role in the delay of the deployment of this product.The actual events or nature of these remain unclear to me.As is often the case, corporate profits always overshadow human comfort, human safety, and well-being of health.Because corporate executives are not directly affected by their deeds. 2004*The C-Peptide test is still rarely being performed. Result: Children are still being misdiagnosed as “type 1.” Adults diagnosed as “Juvenile” are unaware that they may be type 2. Every absurd excuse is being used by endocrinologists not to perform the C-Peptide test. Most doctors still have little or no training in nutrition. 2004From the White House Website: http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2003/10/20031031-6.html “Up to 1 million Americans have type 1 diabetes, an autoimmune disorder that destroys insulin-producing cells in the pancreas, while an estimated 16 million Americans have type 2 diabetes, in which the body does not sufficiently produce or process enough insulin. Type 2 diabetes is often related to obesity, and it is rising rapidly among men and women of all ages. *Type 2 diabetes is also on the rise among children, for whom it was once extremely rare. Modest weight loss, increased exercise, and a healthy diet can decrease the risk of type 2 diabetes and help manage its complications." Was type 2 among children once extremely rare or do up to 1 million Americans have the wrong diagnosis? 2004The American Diabetes Association is still misleading diabetics about the C-Peptide test. (Not only diabetics.) These are the responses I received after having contacted the Governor’s offices of two U.S. states regarding the misdiagnosis of children as “Type 1” by lack of C-Peptide testing. U.S. State 1. From a director of a state Department of Health: “*that as the numbers of young children are increasing that present with symptoms of diabetes, C-peptide testing is being utilized more frequently to delineate type 1 from type 2. However, C-Peptide testing does not yet appear to be a routine part of standard of care in the diagnosis of diabetes. In addition, as you correctly stated, the American Diabetes Association's current nomenclature uses Type 1 or Type 2." Why are 1 million Americans classified as having "juvenile" or "type 1 diabetes, an autoimmune disorder that destroys insulin-producing cells in the pancreas"? Why does the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation continue to use the term “Juvenile Diabetes”, when the American Diabetes Association does not? U.S. State 2. From a Certified Diabetes Educator with a state Diabetes Prevention and Control Program.Instead of acknowledging that C-Peptide testing will help to correctly diagnose Type 2 diabetes in insulin dependent children, this person wrote: “Type 1 Diabetes is currently diagnosed with a causal plasma glucose concentration of greater than or equal to 200 mg/dl with symptoms of diabetes (frequent urination, excessive thirst, and unexplained weight loss) OR a fasting plasma glucose of greater than or equal to 126. (American Diabetes Association: Clinical Practice Recommendations 2004, Page S9)" and "If further testing is needed to verify a type 1 diabetes diagnosis, testing for markers of immune destruction of beta cells in the pancreas include islet cell autoantibodies, autoantibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase and autoantibodies to the tyrosine phosphatases. (American Diabetes Association: Clinical Practice Recommendation 2004, Page S6) As these tests are extremely expensive, they are not done on a routine basis and are rarely covered by third party reimbursement." The same identical symptoms can also be used to diagnose Type 2 diabetes in older people. A C-Peptide negative resultis not conclusive proof of Type 1 diabetes, but a C-Peptide positive result is conclusive proof of Type 2 diabetes.The C-Peptide test ranges in price from US $79. – $129., hardly an expensive test in comparison to othermedical tests (Hba1c -- US $62.) The actual price paid for a C-Peptide test by third party reimbursement could be less. 2005I paid $99. for a Glucagon Emergency Kit, a life saving item in the event of an insulin reaction, 15 years ago the same identical item cost $35.Apparently Eli Lilly the manufacturer of this product feels that it has the right to exploit the misfortune of a diabetic’s life being in peril, caused by another one its products – insulin, by gouging the price on a Glucagon Emergency Kit nearly three times the original cost.